Single-sex schools VS mixed-gender schools: comparing impacts

Journal: Region - Educational Research and Reviews DOI: 10.32629/rerr.v5i4.1282

Mustafa Özdere

School of Foreign Languages, Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University


This article provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of same-sex and mixed-gender schooling, the importance of diverse educational environments, the strategies for addressing disparities and promoting equality in education. The advantages of same-sex schools include potential benefits for academic achievement, social development, and the promotion of gender equity. However, disadvantages such as reinforcing gender stereotypes and limiting cross-gender interactions should be considered. Mixed-gender schools offer advantages such as diverse social interactions, balanced perspectives, and challenging gender stereotypes. However, potential disadvantages include gender disparities in attention and participation and the perpetuation of gender biases. Creating diverse educational environments is crucial for promoting positive outcomes in academic achievement, social development, cultural competence, and well-being. Strategies for addressing disparities and promoting equality include improving access to education, addressing gender disparities, prioritizing diversity and inclusion, enacting supportive legislation and policies, and engaging with communities. By implementing these strategies, educational institutions can create more equitable and inclusive learning environments. What makes this study particularly timely and relevant is the recent development of same-sex schools versus mixed schools as a political issue in Turkey. There are controversial discussions about this matter, and our research addresses these concerns with empirical evidence and a nuanced perspective.


same-sex school; mixed-gender schools; gender disparities; equality


[1] Patterson M, Pahlke E. 2010. Student characteristics associated with girls' success in a single-sex school. Sex Roles, 65:737-750.
[2] Clavel J, Flannery D. 2022. Single-sex schooling, gender and educational performance: evidence using PISA data. British Educational Research Journal, 2(49):248-265.
[3] Karpiak C, Buchanan J, Hosey M, et al. 2007. University students from single-sex and coeducational high schools: differences in majors and attitudes at a catholic university. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 3(31):282-289.
[4] Rochovská I, Huľová Z, Klein V, et al. 2019. The opinions of pre-primary education teachers on the advantages and disadvantages of heterogeneous age groups. PEC, 3(77):424-436.
[5] Simons J. 2021. School counselor advocacy for gender minority students. PLoS ONE, 3(16):e0248022.
[6] Majeed S. 2019. The impact of school environment on self-consciousness, social interaction anxiety, and emotional development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 45(2):123-145.
[7] Daniels R. 2019. The evolution of attitudes on same‐sex marriage in the united states, 1988--2014. Social Science Quarterly, 100(5):1651-1663.
[8] Rogers R, Vess M, Routlege C. 2016. Construal level shapes associations between political conservatism and reactions to male same-sex intimacy. Social Psychology, 2(47):87-97.
[9] Wong W, Shi S, Chen Z. 2018. Students from single-sex schools are more gender-salient and more anxious in mixed-gender situations: results from high school and college samples. PLoS ONE, 12(13):e0208707.
[10] Fabes R, Martin C, Hanish L, et al. 2018. Gender integration in coeducational classrooms: advancing educational research and practice. School Psychology Quarterly, 2(33):182-190.
[11] Ditmars M. 2022. Political socialization, political gender gaps, and the intergenerational transmission of left‐right ideology. European J Political Res, 1(62): 3-24.
[12] Whitehead A, Perry S. 2014. Religion and support for adoption by same-sex couples. Journal of Family Issues, 6(37): 789-813.
[13] Sherkat D, Vries K, Creek S. 2010. Race, religion, and opposition to same-sex marriage. Social Science Quarterly, 1(91):80-98.
[14] Gao X. 2021. 'Staying In the Nationalist Bubble'. M/C Journal, 1(24).
[15] Park H, Behrman J, Choi J. 2018. Do single-sex schools enhance students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) outcomes? Economics of Education Review, 62:35-47.
[16] Park H, Behrman J, Choi J. 2012. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools. Demography, 2(50):447-469.
[17] Sullivan A, Joshi H, Leonard D. 2010. Single-sex schooling and academic attainment at school and through the life course. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1):6-36.
[18] Jackson C. 2012. Single-sex schools, student achievement, and course selection: evidence from rule-based student assignments in trinidad and tobago. Journal of Public Economics, 1-2(96):173-187.
[19] Pahlke E, Hyde J, Allison C. 2014. The effects of single sex compared with coeducational schooling on students' performance and attitudes: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 4(140): 1042-1072.
[20] Neupane B. 2022. EFL female teachers' and students' experiences of gender discrimination in rural Nepali schools. ELT Perspectives, 1-2(7): 65-75.
[21] Smith D, Schacter H, Enders C, et al. 2017. Gender norm salience across middle schools: contextual variations in associations between gender typicality and socioemotional distress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 5(47):947-960.
[22] Buchmann C, DiPrete TA, McDaniel A. 2008. Gender inequalities in education. Annual Review of Sociology, 34(1):319-337.
[23] Delfabbro P, Winefield T, Trainor S, et al. 2006. Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: prevalence and psychosocial profiles. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(1):71-90.
[24] Legewie J, DiPrete T. 2012. School context and the gender gap in educational achievement. American Sociological Review, 3(77):463-485.
[25] Kessels U, Hannover B. 2008. When being a girl matters less: accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex and coeducational classes and its impact on students' physics-related self-concept of ability. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2(78):273-289.
[26] Brickhouse N. 2001. Embodying science: a feminist perspective on learning. JRST, 3(38):282-295.;2-0
[27] Koçak A. 2020. Single-sex school graduates in the post-school mixed-sex environment: a study in Kazakhstan. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 1(9).
[28] Tam M, Bassett G. 2004. Does diversity matter? Measuring the impact of high school diversity on freshman GPA. Policy Studies Journal, 1(32):129-143.
[29] Gurin P, Nagda B, Lopez G. 2004. The benefits of diversity in education for democratic citizenship. J Social Issues, 1(60):17-34.
[30] Rezaeinia N, Góez J, Guajardo M. 2021. Efficiency and fairness criteria in the assignment of students to projects. Ann Oper Res, 2(319):1717-1735.
[31] Browers C, Ho H. 2021. Seeing through their eyes: the diversity and inclusion lessons learned from rural university students. Higher Education Evaluation and Development, 6(1.)
[32] Cen XJ, Lee R, Maloy J, et al. 2022. Effect of time spent on active learning on exam performance: a controlled case study on a course with different instructors but identical teaching materials.
[33] Goethe E, Colina C. 2017. Taking advantage of diversity within the classroom. J. Chem. Educ, 2(95):189-192.
[34] Denson N, Chang M. 2009. Racial diversity matters: the impact of diversity-related student engagement and institutional context. American Educational Research Journal, 2(46): 322-353.
[35] Chau MH, Lie A, Jacobs GM, et al. 2022. Introduction: promoting diversity and inclusion in language education through research and practice in global Englishes and translanguaging. TESL-EJ, 3(26).
[36] Sari N, Makaria E, Rochgiyanti R, et al. 2021. Environment care character education as a flood disaster management effort. AIJP, 2(13): 1471-1478.
[37] Sakallı Ö, Tlili A, Altinay F, et al. 2021. The role of tolerance education in diversity management: a cultural historical activity theory perspective. SAGE Open, 4(11).
[38] Bywaters K, Russell A, Simmons J, et al. 2021. Preparing to engage in culturally sustaining practices in urban education environments. Intervention in School and Clinic, 2(58):118-123.
[39] Saleem F, Howard T, Langley A. 2021. Understanding and addressing racial stress and trauma in schools: a pathway toward resistance and healing. Psychology in the Schools, 12(59):2506-2521.
[40] Khaskheli K. 2023. Incorporating diversity and inclusion in early childhood education. JERP, 3(1):36-42.
[41] Harrison-Bernard L, Augustus-Wallace A, Souza-Smith F, et al. 2020. Knowledge gains in a professional development workshop on diversity, equity, inclusion, and implicit bias in academia. Advances in Physiology Education, 3(44):286-294.
[42] Lawrence E. 2017. Why do college graduates behave more healthfully than those who are less educated? J Health Soc Behav, 3(58):291-306.
[43] Kredina A, Vasa L, Nurgaliyeva KO. 2023. Analysis of the gender segregation of labor in higher education of Kazakhstan: regional aspect. Economics: the strategy and practice, 18(1):227-240.
[44] Benabentos R, Ray P, Kumar D. 2014. Addressing health disparities in the undergraduate curriculum: an approach to develop a knowledgeable biomedical workforce. LSE, 4(13): 636-640.
[45] Hou M. 2019. Educational equality and international students. JIS, 4(9): 1191-1195.
[46] Law W. 2009. Legislation and equality in basic education for all in china. interchange, 4(40): 337-372.
[47] Norgbey E. 2018. Reflections on gender disparity in stem higher education programs: perspectives and strategies. JPDS-SJPD, 1.
[48] Cené C, Peek M, Jacobs E, et al. 2010. Community-based teaching about health disparities: combining education, scholarship, and community service. JGEN INTERN MED, S2(25): 130-135.
[49] Arday J. 2018. Understanding race and educational leadership in higher education. Management in Education, 4(32): 192-200.

Copyright © 2023 Mustafa Özdere

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License